This report explains how—despite relatively equal distributions of income, broad access to social services, and small gender disparities—many countries of this region are facing growing threats to their human development accomplishments. It shows how popular concerns about inequalities—in terms of income and wealth, but also equality before the law — seem to be on the rise in many countries. It identifies key policy reforms and programming areas for more effective responses to the region’s inequality challenges.
This report addresses these challenges and calls for better measurement of inequalities and sustainability in official statistics, the expansion of care services to address gender-based labour market exclusion, reductions in tax burdens on labour, and expanding fiscal space via reductions in fossil fuel subsidies and increased collection of taxes on illicit financial flows and other goods and services with negative socio-environmental
Both theoretical foundations and empirical analysis demonstrate a direct but more intricate relationship between industrialization and human development. Human development is defined as the process of expanding individual freedoms to live long, healthy and creative lives; to advance towards other goals that they have reason to value; and to engage actively in shaping equitable and sustainable development on a shared planet. Fundamental to enlarging peoples' choices is the building of human capacities – the range of things that people can do or be in life. Investing in people will enable growth and empower people, thus developing human capacities. Employment, either through self-employment or wage employment, is the primary means through which individual capabilities are used to earn income. This income can then be diversified into productive assets, including human capital. When average incomes increase, overall consumption increases, savings accelerate and investments in technological advancement, physical assets, education, and skills also expand.
An analysis of the priorities of the poor in Zambia reveals that, beyond income, individuals value a broad range of things. They require adequate food and nutrition, safe and accessible water supply, better medical services, good quality education at all levels, affordable transport services, adequate shelter, secure livelihoods and productive and satisfying jobs (Republic of Zambia, 2002; UNDP, 1996).
Yemen is facing a large tremendous challenges in socioeconomic, development, political, security, as well as culture integration at a time when many countries in the world notable developing countries are advancing in all sphere of life including economic advancement and cultural evolution. The path of development in Yemen has been associated with events of suffering, conflict and security, political and military unrest conditions which of course have affected the country economic and development. This situation has an impact on the development progression and caused repeated setbacks, and weakened the growth process and encumbered the national economy and society a lot of losses, and thus drain the country's resources in financing those anti-development and anti-growth processes.
Yemen continues to be categorized within the least developed countries and lowest in the level of human development as indicated by the development local and international reports. To attainment proper sustainable development path, Yemen would require to undertake vigorous reform in national budgetary structure and give much priority on education and health as this will accelerate the engine of growth and advancement of Yemeni people.
By increasing GDP and creating new income- and employment-generation opportunities particularly for vulnerable communities–international trade can promote human development. Both trade theories and national experience point to potential pro-poor outcomes for low- and middle-income countries that specialize in the production and export of labour-intensive goods and services. UNDP’s 2005 Central Asia Human Development Report therefore called for a more pro-active approach to trade (and transport and transit) in the region. In light of new developments and trends now unfolding in the region–concerning global and regional integration, migration and remittances, and the unbundling of global value chains–this paper builds on UNDP’s 2005 report by updating the case for policies and programming that can help global and regional integration promote human development in Central Asia.