Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index: developing countries

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Multidimensional poverty indexb
HDRO specificationsc 2010 specificationsd Population in multidimensional povertyc Population near multidimensional povertyc Population in severe multidimensional povertyc Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall poverty Population living below income poverty line (%)
Year and surveya Index Headcount Index Headcount Headcount Intensity of deprivation (%) National poverty line PPP $1.25 a day
Country 2005–2014 Value (%) Value (%) (thousands) (%) (%) (%) Education Health Living standards 2004–2014e 2002–2012e
Afghanistan 2010/2011 M 0.293f 58.8f 0.353f 66.2f 17,116f 49.9f 16.0f 29.8f 45.6f 19.2f 35.2f 35.8 ..
Albania 2008/2009 D 0.005 1.2 0.005 1.4 38 38.3 7.2 0.1 22.4 47.1 30.5 14.3 0.5
Argentina 2005 N 0.015g 3.7g 0.011g 2.9g 1,438g 39.1g 5.2g 0.5g 38.2g 27.8g 34.0g .. 1.4
Armenia 2010 D 0.002 0.6 0.001 0.3 18 37.0 3.0 0.1 3.4 87.8 8.7 32.0 1.8
Azerbaijan 2006 D 0.009 2.4 0.021 5.3 210 38.2 11.5 0.2 20.0 50.7 29.3 5.3 0.3
Bangladesh 2011 D 0.237 49.5 0.253 51.3 75,610 47.8 18.8 21.0 28.4 26.6 44.9 31.5 43.3
Barbados 2012 M 0.004h 1.2h 0.003h 0.9h 3h 33.7h 0.3h 0.0h 1.5h 95.9 2.6h .. ..
Belarus 2005 M 0.001 0.4 0.000 0.0 41 34.5 1.1 0.0 2.6 89.7 7.7 5.5 0.0
Belize 2011 M 0.030 7.4 0.018 4.6 23 41.2 6.4 1.5 36.2 34.8 29.0 .. ..
Benin 2011/2012 D 0.343 64.2 0.307 62.2 6,455 53.3 16.9 37.7 33.1 24.8 42.1 36.2 51.6
Bhutan 2010 M 0.128 29.4 0.119 27.2 211 43.5 18.0 8.8 40.3 26.3 33.4 12.0 2.4
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2008 D 0.097 20.6 0.089 20.5 2,022 47.0 17.3 7.8 21.9 27.9 50.2 45.0 8.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012 M 0.006h 1.7h 0.002h 0.5h 65h 37.3h 3.2h 0.0h 7.8h 79.5h 12.7h 17.9 0.0
Brazil 2013 N 0.011f,i 2.9f,i 5,738f,i 40.2f,i 7.2f,i 0.4f,i 27.6f,i 40.7f,i 31.7f,i 8.9 3.8
Burkina Faso 2010 D 0.508 82.8 0.535 84.0 12,875 61.3 7.6 63.8 39.0 22.5 38.5 46.7 44.5
Burundi 2010 D 0.442 81.8 0.454 80.8 7,553 54.0 12.0 48.2 25.0 26.3 48.8 66.9 81.3
Cambodia 2010 D 0.211 46.8 0.212 45.9 6,721 45.1 20.4 16.4 25.9 27.7 46.4 17.7 10.1
Cameroon 2011 D 0.260 48.2 0.248 46.0 10,187 54.1 17.8 27.1 24.5 31.3 44.2 39.9 27.6
Central African Republic 2010 M 0.424 76.3 0.430 77.6 3,320 55.6 15.7 48.5 23.8 26.2 50.0 62.0 62.8
Chad 2010 M 0.545 86.9 0.554 87.2 10,186 62.7 8.8 67.6 32.3 22.5 45.2 46.7 36.5
China 2012 N 0.023i 5.2i 0.023i 5.2i 71,939i 43.3i 22.7i 1.0i 30.0i 36.6i 33.4i .. 6.3
Colombia 2010 D 0.032 7.6 0.022 5.4 3,534 42.2 10.2 1.8 34.3 24.7 41.0 30.6 5.6
Comoros 2012 D/M 0.165 34.3 0.173 36.0 247 48.1 23.1 14.9 29.1 25.9 45.0 44.8 46.1
Congo 2011/2012 D 0.192 43.0 0.181 39.7 1,866 44.7 26.2 12.2 10.6 32.8 56.6 46.5 32.8
Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2013/2014 D 0.369 72.5 0.401 75.1 50,312 50.8 18.5 36.7 15.6 31.0 53.4 63.6 87.7
Côte d'Ivoire 2011/2012 D 0.307 59.3 0.310 58.7 11,772 51.7 17.9 32.4 36.5 25.8 37.7 42.7 35.0
Djibouti 2006 M 0.127 26.9 0.139 29.3 212 47.3 16.0 11.1 36.1 22.7 41.2 .. 18.8
Dominican Republic 2013 D 0.025 6.0 0.020 5.1 620 41.6 20.6 1.0 28.4 39.6 32.0 41.1 2.3
Ecuador 2013/2014 N 0.015 3.7 0.013 3.5 588 39.6 8.4 0.5 23.6 42.4 34.0 22.5 4.0
Egypt 2014 D 0.016j 4.2i 0.014j 3.6j 3,491j 37.4j 5.6j 0.4j 45.6j 46.7j 7.8j 25.2 1.7
Ethiopia 2011 D 0.537 88.2 0.564 87.3 78,887 60.9 6.7 67.0 27.4 25.2 47.4 29.6 36.8
Gabon 2012 D 0.073 16.7 0.070 16.5 273 43.4 19.9 4.4 15.2 43.8 40.9 32.7 6.1
Gambia 2013 D 0.289 57.2 0.323 60.4 1,058 50.5 21.3 31.7 32.9 30.9 36.2 48.4 33.6
Georgia 2005 M 0.008 2.2 0.003 0.8 99 37.6 4.1 0.1 7.4 67.4 25.2 14.8 14.1
Ghana 2011 M 0.144 30.5 0.139 30.4 7,559 47.3 18.7 12.1 27.7 27.1 45.2 24.2 28.6
Guinea 2012 D/M 0.425 73.8 0.459 75.1 8,456 57.6 12.7 49.8 36.6 22.8 40.6 55.2 40.9
Guinea-Bissau 2006 M 0.495 80.4 0.462 77.5 1,168 61.6 10.5 58.4 30.5 27.9 41.6 69.3 48.9
Guyana 2009 D 0.031 7.8 0.030 7.7 61 40.0 18.8 1.2 16.8 51.2 32.0 .. ..
Haiti 2012 D 0.242 50.2 0.248 49.4 5,104 48.1 22.2 20.1 24.8 23.4 51.8 58.5 ..
Honduras 2011/2012 D 0.098k 20.7k 0.072k 15.8k 1,642k 47.4k 28.6k 7.2k 36.6k 23.1k 40.3k 64.5 16.5
India 2005/2006 D 0.282 55.3 0.283 53.7 631,999 51.1 18.2 27.8 22.7 32.5 44.8 21.9 23.6
Indonesia 2012 D 0.024f 5.9f 0.066f 15.5f 14,574f 41.3f 8.1f 1.1f 24.7f 35.1f 40.2f 11.3 16.2
Iraq 2011 M 0.052 13.3 0.045 11.6 4,236 39.4 7.4 2.5 50.1 38.6 11.3 18.9 3.9
Jamaica 2010 N 0.014h,i 3.7h,i 0.008h,i 2.0h,i 102h,i 38.8h,i 9.1h,i 0.5h,i 7.7h,i 59.3h,i 33.0h,i 19.9 0.2
Jordan 2012 D 0.004 1.2 0.006 1.7 85 35.3 1.0 0.1 31.5 65.0 3.5 14.4 0.1
Kazakhstan 2010/2011 M 0.004 1.1 0.001 0.2 173 36.4 2.3 0.0 4.3 83.9 11.8 2.9 0.1
Kenya 2008/2009 D 0.226 48.2 0.229 47.8 19,190 47.0 29.1 15.7 11.2 32.4 56.4 45.9 43.4
Kyrgyzstan 2012 D 0.006 1.8 0.007 2.0 96 36.9 10.7 0.1 6.6 70.5 22.9 37.0 5.1
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2011/2012 M 0.186 36.8 0.174 34.1 2,447 50.5 18.5 18.8 37.7 25.4 36.9 23.2 30.3
Lesotho 2009 D 0.227 49.5 0.156 35.3 984 45.9 20.4 18.2 14.8 33.8 51.4 57.1 56.2
Liberia 2013 D 0.356 70.1 0.374 71.2 3,010 50.8 21.5 35.4 23.0 25.6 51.4 63.8 83.8
Libya 2007 N 0.005 1.4 0.006 1.5 79 37.5 6.3 0.1 31.9 47.9 20.2 .. ..
Madagascar 2008/2009 D 0.420 77.0 0.357 66.9 15,774 54.6 11.7 48.0 31.6 24.5 43.9 75.3 87.7
Malawi 2010 D 0.332 66.7 0.334 66.7 10,012 49.8 24.5 29.8 18.9 27.7 53.4 50.7 72.2
Maldives 2009 D 0.008 2.0 0.018 5.2 6 37.5 8.5 0.1 27.8 60.2 11.9 .. 1.5
Mali 2012/2013 D 0.456 78.4 0.457 77.7 11,998 58.2 10.8 55.9 37.9 22.4 39.7 43.6 50.6
Mauritania 2011 M 0.291 55.6 0.285 52.2 2,060 52.4 16.8 29.9 34.5 20.3 45.3 42.0 23.4
Mexico 2012 N 0.024 6.0 0.011 2.8 7,272 39.9 10.1 1.1 31.4 25.6 43.0 52.3 1.0
Moldova (Republic of) 2012 M 0.004 1.1 0.003 0.8 38 38.4 2.2 0.1 11.0 66.9 22.1 12.7 0.2
Mongolia 2010 M 0.047 11.1 0.037 9.2 302 42.5 19.3 2.3 18.1 27.7 54.2 27.4 ..
Montenegro 2013 M 0.002 0.5 0.001 0.3 3 38.9 2.0 0.0 22.0 59.9 18.1 11.3 0.2
Morocco 2011 N 0.069 15.6 0.067 15.4 5,016 44.3 12.6 4.9 44.8 21.8 33.4 8.9 2.57
Mozambique 2011 D 0.390 70.2 0.389 69.6 17,246 55.6 14.8 44.1 30.4 22.3 47.3 54.7 60.7
Namibia 2013 D 0.205 44.9 0.193 42.0 1,034 45.5 19.3 13.4 11.0 39.2 49.8 28.7 23.5
Nepal 2011 D 0.197 41.4 0.217 44.2 11,255 47.4 18.1 18.6 27.3 28.2 44.5 25.2 23.7
Nicaragua 2011/2012 D 0.088 19.4 0.072 16.1 1,146 45.6 14.8 6.9 37.8 12.6 49.6 42.5 8.5
Niger 2012 D 0.584 89.8 0.605 89.3 15,408 65.0 5.9 73.5 35.9 24.0 40.0 48.9 40.8
Nigeria 2013 D 0.279 50.9 0.303 53.2 88,425 54.8 18.4 30.0 29.8 29.8 40.4 46.0 62.0
Pakistan 2012/2013 D 0.237 45.6 0.230 44.2 83,045 52.0 14.9 26.5 36.2 32.3 31.6 22.3 12.7
Palestine, State of 2010 M 0.007 1.9 0.006 1.5 75 37.4 6.2 0.1 13.9 68.8 17.3 25.8 0.1
Peru 2012 D 0.043 10.4 0.043 10.5 3,132 41.4 12.3 2.1 19.4 29.8 50.8 23.9 2.9
Philippines 2013 D 0.033f,l 6.3f,l 0.052f,l 11.0f,l 6,221f,l 51.9f,l 8.4f,l 4.2f,l 35.3f,l 30.2f,l 34.5f,l 25.2 19.0
Rwanda 2010 D 0.352 70.8 0.350 69.0 7,669 49.7 17.9 34.6 23.8 27.2 49.0 44.9 63.0
Saint Lucia 2012 M 0.003 0.8 0.003 1.0 2 34.5 0.9 0.0 15.8 65.2 19.0 .. ..
Sao Tome and Principe 2008/2009 D 0.217 47.5 0.154 34.5 82 45.5 21.5 16.4 29.1 26.5 44.4 61.7 43.5
Senegal 2014 D 0.278 51.9 0.309 56.9 7,556 53.5 18.1 30.8 43.6 23.1 33.4 46.7 34.1
Serbia 2014 M 0.002 0.4 0.001 0.2 41 40.6 2.7 0.1 30.7 40.7 28.7 24.6 0.1
Sierra Leone 2013 D 0.411 77.5 0.464 81.0 4,724 53.0 14.6 43.9 25.7 28.5 45.9 52.9 56.6
Somalia 2006 M 0.500 81.8 0.514 81.2 7,104 61.1 8.3 63.6 33.7 18.8 47.5 .. ..
South Africa 2012 N 0.041 10.3 0.044 11.1 5,400 39.6 17.1 1.3 8.4 61.4 30.2 53.8 9.4
South Sudan 2010 M 0.551 89.3 0.557 91.1 8,877 61.7 8.5 69.6 39.3 14.3 46.3 50.6 ..
Sudan 2010 M 0.290 53.1 0.321 57.8 18,916 54.6 17.9 31.9 30.4 20.7 48.9 46.5 19.8
Suriname 2010 M 0.033h 7.6h 0.024h 5.9h 40h 43.1h 4.7h 2.0h 31.0h 37.2h 31.8h .. ..
Swaziland 2010 M 0.113 25.9 0.086 20.4 309 43.5 20.5 7.4 13.7 41.0 45.3 63.0 39.3
Syrian Arab Republic 2009 N 0.028 7.2 0.016 4.4 1,519 39.1 7.4 1.3 54.7 34.0 11.3 35.2 1.7
Tajikistan 2012 D 0.031 7.9 0.054 13.2 629 39.0 23.4 1.2 13.4 52.6 34.0 47.2 6.5
Tanzania (United Republic of) 2010 D 0.335 66.4 0.332 65.6 29,842 50.4 21.5 32.1 16.9 28.2 54.9 28.2 43.5
Thailand 2005/2006 M 0.004 1.0 0.006 1.6 664 38.8 4.4 0.1 19.4 51.3 29.4 12.6 0.3
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2011 M 0.007h 1.7h 0.002h 0.7h 36h 38.4h 2.4h 0.1h 18.5h 57.2h 24.3h 27.1 0.3
Timor-Leste 2009/2010 D 0.322 64.3 0.360 68.1 694 50.1 21.4 31.5 20.0 30.4 49.6 49.9 34.9
Togo 2013/2014 D 0.242 48.5 0.252 50.1 3,394 49.9 19.9 23.2 26.4 28.8 44.9 58.7 52.5
Trinidad and Tobago 2006 M 0.007f 1.7f 0.020f 5.6f 23f 38.0f 0.5f 0.2f 2.2f 86.1f 11.7f .. ..
Tunisia 2011/2012 M 0.006 1.5 0.004 1.2 161 39.3 3.2 0.2 33.7 48.2 18.1 15.5 0.7
Uganda 2011 D 0.359 70.3 0.367 69.9 24,712 51.1 20.6 33.3 18.0 30.2 51.9 19.5 37.8
Ukraine 2012 M 0.001f 0.4f 0.004f 1.2f 162f 34.5f 0.0f 0.0f 19.0f 77.5f 3.5f 8.4 0.0
Uzbekistan 2006 M 0.013 3.5 0.008 2.3 935 36.6 6.2 0.1 3.7 83.4 12.8 16.0 ..
Vanuatu 2007 M 0.135 31.2 0.129 30.1 69 43.1 32.6 7.3 24.4 24.1 51.6 .. ..
Viet Nam 2010/2011 M 0.026 6.4 0.017 4.2 5,796 40.7 8.7 1.3 35.9 25.7 38.4 17.2 2.4
Yemen 2013 D 0.200 40.0 9,754 50.1 22.4 19.4 29.5 32.2 38.2 34.8 9.8
Zambia 2013/2014 D 0.264 54.4 0.281 56.6 8,173 48.6 23.1 22.5 17.9 29.8 52.3 60.5 74.3
Zimbabwe 2014 M 0.128 28.9 0.127 29.7 4,222 44.1 29.3 7.8 10.8 34.5 54.8 72.3 ..

Notes
a. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M indicates data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and N indicates data from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org for the list of national surveys).
b. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100%. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details.
c. The HDRO specifications refer to somewhat modified definitions of deprivations in some indicators compared to the 2010 specifications. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details.
d. Based on a methodology from Alkire and Santos 2010.
e. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
f. Missing indicators on nutrition.
g. Refers to urban areas only.
h. Missing indicator on child mortality.
i. Missing indicator on type of floor.
j. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
k. Missing indicator on electricity.
l. Missing indicator on school attendance.

Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Percentage of the population with a weighted deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is also expressed in thousands of the population in the survey year.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.
Population in severe poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.
Population below national poverty line: Percentage of the population living below the national poverty line, which is the poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
Population below PPP $1.25 a day: Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line $1.25 (in purchasing power parity terms) a day.

Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the values in columns 2-12.
Columns 2 - 3 and 6-12: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 using revised methodology described in Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf.
Columns 4 and 5: Alkire and Robles (2015).
Columns 13 and 14: World Bank (2015a).