Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index: developing countries

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Table 6: Multidimensional Poverty Index: developing countries
SDG 1.2 SDG 1.2 SDG 1.1
Multidimensional
Poverty Index
a Population in
multidimensional poverty
a Population vulnerable to multidimensional poverty a Population in severe multidimensional poverty a Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall poverty a Population living below income poverty line

(%)
    Headcount Intensity of deprivation              
Year and survey b Index   (thousands) (%) National poverty
line
PPP $1.90 a day  
Country 2006-2017 Value (%) Survey year 2016 (%) (%) (%) Health Education Standard of living 2006-2017 c 2006-2016 c
Afghanistan 2015/2016 D 0.273 d 56.1 d 19,442 d 19,442 d 48.7 d 18.0 d 25.1 d 10.4 d 44.8 d 44.8 d 35.8 ..
Albania 2008/2009 D 0.008 2.0 60 60 37.8 7.3 0.2 33.1 29.9 37.0 14.3 1.1
Algeria 2012/2013 M 0.008 2.1 811 858 38.8 5.9 0.3 30.3 46.6 23.1 5.5 0.5
Angola 2015/2016 D 0.283 51.2 14,743 14,743 55.3 15.5 32.5 21.2 32.0 46.8 36.6 30.1
Armenia 2015/2016 D 0.001 0.2 5 5 36.2 2.7 0.0 33.1 36.8 30.1 29.4 1.8
Azerbaijan 2006 D 0.019 4.9 423 477 38.4 12.2 0.5 39.0 29.1 31.9 6.0 ..
Bangladesh 2014 D 0.194 41.1 65,460 66,916 47.3 21.5 16.2 22.9 29.6 47.5 24.3 14.8
Barbados 2012 M 0.009 e 2.5 e 7 e 7 e 34.2 e 0.5 e 0.0 e 96.0 e 0.7 e 3.3 e .. ..
Belize 2015/2016 M 0.017 4.4 16 16 39.8 8.5 0.6 39.6 21.1 39.2 .. ..
Benin 2014 M 0.346 63.2 6,505 6,875 54.8 16.1 38.0 21.1 35.4 43.5 40.1 49.6
Bhutan 2010 M 0.175 f 37.3 f 272 f 298 f 46.8 f 17.7 f 14.7 f 24.2 f 36.6 f 39.2 f 12.0 2.2
Bolivia (Plurinational State
of)
2008 D 0.094 20.5 1,963 2,227 46.0 15.6 7.1 21.7 26.5 51.7 39.5 7.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012 M 0.008 e 2.2 e 80 e 77 e 37.9 e 4.1 e 0.1 e 79.7 e 7.2 e 13.1 e 16.9 0.2
Brazil 2015 N g 0.016 d,f 3.8 d,f 7,913 d,f 7,978 d,f 42.5 d,f 6.2 d,f 0.9 d,f 49.8 d,f 22.9 d,f 27.3 d,f 8.7 3.4
Burkina Faso 2010 D 0.520 84.0 13,110 15,665 61.9 7.3 64.8 20.2 40.5 39.3 40.1 43.7
Burundi 2016/2017 D 0.404 74.3 8,075 7,823 54.3 16.2 45.4 23.4 27.4 49.2 64.9 71.7
Cambodia 2014 D 0.158 34.9 5,328 5,499 45.3 21.1 12.0 20.7 33.2 46.1 17.7 ..
Cameroon 2014 M 0.244 45.4 10,097 10,641 53.7 17.3 25.8 23.5 28.1 48.4 37.5 23.8
Central African Republic 2010 M 0.465 f 79.4 f 3,530 f 3,646 f 58.6 f 13.1 f 54.7 f 27.8 f 25.7 f 46.5 f 62.0 66.3
Chad 2014/2015 D 0.535 85.9 12,029 12,409 62.3 9.7 66.2 20.2 34.3 45.5 46.7 38.4
China 2014 N h 0.017 i,j 4.02 i,j 55,825 i,j 56,363 i,j 41.38 i,j 17.98 i,j 0.35 i,j 36.13 i,j 38.37 i,j 25.50 i,j 3.10 1.40
Colombia 2015/2016 D 0.021 d 5.0 d 2,448 d 2,448 d 40.8 d 6.2 d 0.9 d 15.1 d 37.9 d 47.0 d 28.0 4.5
Comoros 2012 D/M 0.181 37.4 270 297 48.5 22.2 16.2 20.9 31.5 47.6 42.0 18.1
Congo 2011/2012 D 0.185 40.4 1,873 2,072 45.7 25.7 15.5 27.2 13.2 59.6 46.5 37.0
Congo
(Democratic Republic of the)
2013/2014 D 0.378 72.5 53,417 57,050 52.2 17.7 42.2 25.0 18.9 56.1 63.9 77.1
Côte d'Ivoire 2016 M 0.236 46.1 10,926 10,926 51.2 17.6 24.5 19.7 40.4 40.0 46.3 28.2
Djibouti 2006 M 0.170 f 34.6 f 276 f 326 f 49.0 f 18.5 f 15.7 f 26.4 f 36.4 f 37.3 f 23.0 22.5
Dominican Republic 2014 M 0.016 d 4.1 d 431 d 441 d 38.9 d 5.2 d 0.5 d 33.0 d 33.9 d 33.1 d 30.5 1.6
Ecuador 2013/2014 N 0.018 f 4.5 f 714 f 736 f 40.0 f 7.5 f 0.8 f 40.8 f 23.4 f 35.8 f 21.5 3.6
Egypt 2014 D 0.020 k 5.2 k 4,790 k 4,992 k 37.6 k 6.1 k 0.6 k 40.3 k 52.8 k 6.9 k 27.8 1.3
El Salvador 2014 M 0.033 7.9 499 504 41.3 9.9 1.7 15.9 43.2 40.9 38.2 2.2
Eswatini (Kingdom of) 2014 M 0.083 19.6 254 263 42.4 20.9 4.4 29.9 17.5 52.6 63.0 42.0
Ethiopia 2016 D 0.490 83.8 85,834 85,834 58.5 8.7 61.8 20.0 29.2 50.8 29.6 26.7
Gabon 2012 D 0.067 15.0 264 298 44.3 17.6 4.8 31.5 22.1 46.3 .. ..
Gambia 2013 D 0.286 55.3 1,028 1,127 51.8 21.8 32.0 28.3 34.3 37.4 48.4 10.1
Ghana 2014 D 0.132 28.9 7,798 8,158 45.5 21.4 9.6 20.4 31.8 47.8 24.2 12.0
Guatemala 2014/2015 D 0.134 29.1 4,725 4,821 46.2 21.1 11.3 26.6 34.8 38.5 59.3 8.7
Guinea 2016 M 0.337 62.0 7,679 7,679 54.5 17.1 38.1 18.9 38.6 42.5 55.2 35.3
Guinea-Bissau 2014 M 0.373 67.4 1,163 1,224 55.4 19.1 40.5 21.4 33.9 44.7 69.3 67.1
Guyana 2014 M 0.014 3.4 26 26 41.9 5.9 0.7 31.6 18.6 49.7 .. ..
Haiti 2012 D 0.231 47.6 4,897 5,163 48.6 20.4 22.5 15.8 27.9 56.3 58.5 23.5
Honduras 2011/2012 D 0.090 l 19.5 l 1,658 l 1,776 l 46.4 l 22.2 l 6.6 l 18.8 l 32.9 l 48.2 l 60.9 16.0
India 2015/2016 D 0.121 27.5 364,225 364,225 43.9 19.1 8.6 31.6 23.6 44.8 21.9 21.2
Indonesia 2012 D 0.029 d 7.2 d 18,036 d 18,922 d 40.5 d 9.1 d 1.2 d 25.3 d 29.1 d 45.6 d 10.6 6.5
Iraq 2011 M 0.059 14.7 4,650 5,453 40.0 7.9 3.0 36.2 51.7 12.1 18.9 2.5
Jamaica 2014 N 0.018 e 4.7 e 134 e 135 e 38.7 e 6.4 e 0.8 e 42.1 e 17.5 e 40.4 e 19.9 ..
Jordan 2012 D 0.005 1.3 104 123 35.5 0.9 0.1 60.7 35.9 3.4 14.4 0.1
Kazakhstan 2015 M 0.002 f 0.5 f 80 f 81 f 35.6 f 1.8 f 0.0 f 90.4 f 3.1 f 6.4 f 2.7 0.0
Kenya 2014 D 0.179 38.9 17,890 18,837 46.0 34.7 13.4 25.1 14.5 60.4 36.1 ..
Kyrgyzstan 2014 M 0.008 2.3 132 136 36.3 8.3 0.0 52.8 12.9 34.3 25.4 1.4
Lao
People's Democratic Republic
2011/2012 M/D 0.211 40.5 2,598 2,737 52.2 18.7 22.0 21.2 37.8 41.0 23.4 22.7
Lesotho 2014 D 0.146 33.6 722 741 43.5 24.5 8.6 20.7 21.5 57.8 57.1 59.6
Liberia 2013 D 0.331 64.9 2,782 2,994 50.9 20.4 33.2 21.0 27.4 51.6 54.1 38.6
Libya 2014 P 0.007 2.0 122 124 37.1 11.3 0.1 38.9 48.5 12.5 .. ..
Madagascar 2008/2009 D 0.453 77.8 16,001 19,366 58.2 11.8 57.3 17.6 31.7 50.7 70.7 77.6
Malawi 2015/2016 D 0.244 52.7 9,539 9,539 46.2 28.4 18.5 20.8 23.1 56.2 50.7 71.4
Maldives 2009 D 0.007 1.9 7 8 36.6 5.3 0.1 55.4 32.5 12.1 15.7 7.3
Mali 2015 M 0.457 78.1 13,644 14,056 58.5 10.9 56.7 22.1 41.6 36.3 43.6 49.7
Mauritania 2015 M 0.261 50.6 2,116 2,176 51.6 18.6 26.4 20.3 33.1 46.6 31.0 6.0
Mexico 2016 N 0.025 e 6.3 e 8,061 e 8,061 e 39.2 e 4.7 e 1.0 e 67.1 e 14.1 e 18.8 e 43.6 2.5
Moldova (Republic of) 2012 M 0.004 0.9 38 38 37.4 3.6 0.1 9.2 42.4 48.4 9.6 0.2
Mongolia 2013 M 0.043 10.2 294 310 41.6 19.1 1.6 24.2 20.8 55.1 21.6 0.5
Montenegro 2013 M 0.002 f 0.4 f 2 f 2 f 45.7 f 4.3 f 0.1 f 24.4 f 46.0 f 29.7 f 8.6 0.0
Morocco 2011 P 0.085 f 18.6 f 6,101 f 6,550 f 45.7 f 13.2 f 6.5 f 25.6 f 42.1 f 32.3 f 8.9 3.1
Mozambique 2011 D 0.412 72.5 18,091 20,913 56.8 13.5 49.2 17.4 32.4 50.2 46.1 62.9
Myanmar 2015/2016 D 0.176 38.3 20,280 20,280 45.9 21.9 13.9 18.6 32.2 49.2 32.1 6.4
Namibia 2013 D 0.183 40.6 940 1,007 45.1 19.3 12.9 31.5 14.0 54.5 28.7 22.6
Nepal 2016 D 0.154 35.3 10,217 10,217 43.6 24.3 12.0 32.3 26.5 41.3 25.2 15.0
Nicaragua 2011/2012 D 0.074 16.3 958 1,003 45.2 13.2 5.5 11.2 36.4 52.4 24.9 3.2
Niger 2012 D 0.591 90.6 16,062 18,727 65.3 5.0 74.9 20.4 37.2 42.4 44.5 44.5
Nigeria 2016/2017 M 0.294 52.0 99,166 96,623 56.7 16.9 32.7 27.1 32.2 40.7 46.0 53.5
Pakistan 2012/2013 D 0.228 43.9 79,731 84,773 52.0 14.5 24.7 28.7 38.5 32.8 29.5 6.1
Palestine, State of 2014 M 0.004 1.0 45 47 37.6 5.4 0.1 54.4 31.6 14.0 25.8 0.2
Paraguay 2016 M 0.019 4.6 308 308 42.0 7.3 1.0 15.2 38.3 46.6 28.9 1.7
Peru 2012 D 0.052 12.4 3,753 3,954 41.5 12.5 2.7 19.6 24.1 56.4 20.7 3.5
Philippines 2013 D 0.038 d,m 7.4 d,m 7,294 d,m 7,653 d,m 51.8 d,m 9.3 d,m 4.7 d,m 22.2 d,m 38.5 d,m 39.2 d,m 21.6 8.3
Rwanda 2014/2015 D 0.266 55.8 6,494 6,655 47.7 24.9 22.9 14.8 29.7 55.5 39.1 59.5
Saint Lucia 2012 M 0.007 e 1.9 e 3 e 3 e 37.5 e 1.6 e 0.0 e 69.5 e 7.5 e 23.0 e .. ..
Sao Tome and Principe 2014 M 0.092 22.1 42 44 41.7 19.4 4.4 18.7 37.3 44.0 66.2 32.3
Senegal 2016 D 0.293 54.4 8,389 8,389 53.9 17.2 32.0 21.4 45.6 33.0 46.7 38.0
Serbia 2014 M 0.001 f 0.3 f 30 f 30 f 42.5 f 3.4 f 0.1 f 20.6 f 42.7 f 36.8 f 25.5 0.1
Sierra Leone 2013 D 0.422 76.5 5,295 5,657 55.2 14.4 48.4 23.3 27.7 49.0 52.9 52.2
Somalia 2006 M 0.518 82.2 8,813 11,773 62.9 8.7 67.5 17.3 34.9 47.7 .. ..
South Africa 2014/2015 N n 0.032 8.2 4,544 4,604 39.3 14.0 1.1 54.5 11.1 34.4 55.5 18.9
South Sudan 2010 M 0.581 91.9 9,253 11,242 63.2 6.3 74.5 14.1 39.5 46.4 50.6 42.7
Sudan 2014 M 0.280 52.4 19,773 20,738 53.4 17.6 30.9 21.1 29.1 49.8 46.5 14.9
Suriname 2010 M 0.041 e 9.4 e 49 e 52 e 43.4 e 4.5 e 2.5 e 45.7 e 25.5 e 28.8 e .. ..
Syrian Arab Republic 2009 P 0.029 f 7.4 f 1,539 f 1,362 f 38.9 f 7.7 f 1.2 f 40.7 f 49.0 f 10.2 f 35.2 ..
Tajikistan 2012 D 0.049 12.1 968 1,058 40.4 25.4 2.3 44.6 22.4 33.0 31.3 4.8
Tanzania
(United Republic of)
2015/2016 D 0.275 55.6 30,915 30,915 49.4 24.1 26.1 21.3 22.8 55.8 28.2 49.1
Thailand 2015/2016 M 0.003 f 0.8 f 543 f 543 f 39.1 f 7.2 f 0.1 f 35.1 f 47.4 f 17.5 f 10.5 0.0
The
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
2011 M 0.010 e 2.5 e 52 e 53 e 37.7 e 2.9 e 0.2 e 62.5 e 17.0 e 20.5 e 21.5 5.0
Timor-Leste 2016 D 0.211 46.0 584 584 45.8 26.0 16.5 28.1 24.1 47.8 41.8 30.3
Togo 2013/2014 D 0.250 48.4 3,496 3,679 51.6 21.8 24.4 21.8 28.3 49.9 55.1 49.2
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 M 0.002 f 0.6 f 8 f 9 f 38.0 f 3.7 f 0.1 f 45.5 f 34.0 f 20.5 f .. ..
Tunisia 2011/2012 M 0.005 1.3 144 151 39.7 3.7 0.2 25.7 50.2 24.1 15.2 2.0
Turkmenistan 2015/2016 M 0.001 0.4 23 23 36.1 2.5 0.0 88.0 4.4 7.6 .. ..
Uganda 2016 D 0.279 56.8 23,549 23,549 49.1 23.9 25.4 23.7 21.7 54.5 19.7 35.9
Ukraine 2012 M 0.001 d 0.2 d 109 d 107 d 34.5 d 0.4 d 0.0 d 59.8 d 28.7 d 11.5 d 3.8 0.1
Uzbekistan 2006 M 0.016 f 4.4 f 1,178 f 1,377 f 37.2 f 10.1 f 0.3 f 67.8 f 11.9 f 20.3 f 14.1 ..
Vanuatu 2007 M 0.174 f 38.8 f 85 f 105 f 44.9 f 32.3 f 10.2 f 21.4 f 22.5 f 56.2 f 12.7 13.2
Viet Nam 2014 M 0.020 d 5.0 d 4,623 d 4,724 d 39.5 d 5.6 d 0.7 d 16.6 d 41.8 d 41.6 d 9.8 2.6
Yemen 2013 D 0.241 47.8 12,219 13,178 50.5 22.1 23.9 28.4 30.7 40.9 48.6 18.8
Zambia 2013/2014 D 0.262 53.4 8,338 8,856 49.1 22.4 24.3 23.9 22.5 53.6 54.4 57.5
Zimbabwe 2015 D 0.149 34.7 5,473 5,602 42.9 26.3 8.8 29.2 11.4 59.4 72.3 21.4


Note
a. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. Where an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100 percent. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details.
b. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, P from Pan Arab Population and Family Health Survey and N from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org/en/faq-page/multidimensional-poverty-index-mpi for the list of national surveys).
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Missing indicators on nutrition.
e. Missing indicator on child mortality.
f. Child death that occurred anytime was considered, because date of child’s death was not collected.
g. Methodology was adjusted to account for missing nutrition and incomplete mortality indicator (date of child's death was not collected).
h. MPI computations based on the version of data accessed on 7 June 2016.
i. Missing indicator on housing.
j. Given the information available in the data, child mortality was constructed using deaths that occurred between survey collections, i.e. between the period 2012-2014. Deaths reported by men were taken into account because there is information about date of death.
k. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
l. Missing indicator on electricity.
m. Missing indicator on school attendance.
n. Child mortality reported by mothers of ages 15 and above was considered. If child mortality was considered only when reported by mothers of ages 15 to 49, the value of MPI would be 0.021 with the headcount ratio of 5.59 percent and the intensity of deprivation of 38.4 percent. For details see https://ophi.org.uk/multidimensional-poverty-index/global-mpi-2018/


Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Percentage of the population with a deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is also expressed in thousands of the population in the survey year.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Population near multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations—that is, those with a deprivation score of 20–33 percent.
Population in severe multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty—that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Contribution of deprivation to overall poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.
Population living below national poverty line: Percentage of the population living below the national poverty line, which is the poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
Population living below PPP$1.90 a day: Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line $1.90 (in purchasing power parity terms) a day.


Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the country’s multidimensional poverty index and its components.
Columns 2-11: HDRO calculations based on data on household deprivations in education, health and living standards from various household surveys listed in column 1 using a revised methodology described in Technical note 5 (available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf).
Columns 12 and 13: World Bank (2018b). World Development Indicators database. Washington, DC. Http://data.worldbank.org. Accessed 28 July 2018.