Table 5: Gender Inequality Index

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Table 5. Gender Inequality Index
SDG3.1 SDG3.7 SDG5.5 SDG4.6
Gender
Inequality Index
Maternal mortality ratio Adolescent birth rate Share of seats in parliament Population with at least some secondary education Labour force
participation rate
a
Value Rank (deaths per 100,000 live births) (births per 1,000 women ages 15–19) (% held by women) (% ages 25
and older)
(% ages 15 and older)
HDI rank Country Female Male Female Male
2017 2017 2015 2015-2020 b 2017 2010–2017 c 2010–2017 c 2017 2017
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.048 5 5 5.6 41.4 96.3 95.1 60.8 67.6
2 Switzerland 0.039 1 5 3.0 29.3 96.4 97.2 62.9 74.1
3 Australia 0.109 23 6 12.9 32.7 90.0 89.9 59.2 70.5
4 Ireland 0.109 23 8 9.7 24.3 90.2 86.3 53.0 67.3
5 Germany 0.072 14 6 6.5 31.5 96.2 96.8 55.0 66.2
6 Iceland 0.062 9 3 6.8 38.1 100.0 100.0 72.8 81.8
7 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 2.7 .. 75.7 81.8 54.0 68.1
7 Sweden 0.044 3 4 5.2 43.6 88.4 88.7 60.8 67.4
9 Singapore 0.067 12 10 3.7 23.0 76.1 82.9 60.5 76.8
10 Netherlands 0.044 3 7 4.0 35.6 86.4 90.4 58.0 69.2
11 Denmark 0.040 2 6 4.1 37.4 90.1 91.3 59.2 67.2
12 Canada 0.092 20 7 9.4 30.1 100.0 100.0 60.7 69.8
13 United States 0.189 41 14 18.8 19.7 95.5 95.2 55.7 68.3
14 United Kingdom 0.116 25 9 12.5 28.5 82.4 85.2 56.8 68.1
15 Finland 0.058 8 3 6.8 42.0 100.0 100.0 54.8 61.9
16 New Zealand 0.136 34 11 20.0 38.3 99.0 98.8 63.9 74.9
17 Belgium 0.048 5 7 4.9 41.4 82.2 86.7 47.8 58.7
17 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. 12.0 .. .. .. ..
19 Japan 0.103 22 5 4.1 13.7 94.8 91.9 50.5 70.6
20 Austria 0.071 13 4 6.9 33.6 100.0 100.0 55.0 66.0
21 Luxembourg 0.066 11 10 5.2 28.3 100.0 100.0 52.3 63.5
22 Israel 0.098 21 5 9.2 27.5 87.8 90.5 59.3 69.2
22 Korea (Republic of) 0.063 10 11 1.6 17.0 89.8 95.6 52.2 73.2
24 France 0.083 16 8 8.6 35.4 80.6 85.6 50.6 60.1
25 Slovenia 0.054 7 9 4.2 28.7 97.4 98.9 51.7 60.9
26 Spain 0.080 15 5 8.6 38.6 72.2 77.6 52.2 63.8
27 Czechia 0.124 29 4 10.0 21.1 99.8 99.8 52.0 68.3
28 Italy 0.087 18 4 6.1 30.1 75.6 83.0 39.5 58.3
29 Malta 0.216 45 9 16.6 11.9 73.2 82.0 42.3 66.6
30 Estonia 0.122 27 9 12.6 26.7 100.0 100.0 56.4 70.3
31 Greece 0.120 26 3 7.2 18.3 65.4 73.2 45.5 60.6
32 Cyprus 0.085 17 7 4.6 17.9 76.8 80.7 58.1 67.5
33 Poland 0.132 32 3 12.7 25.5 81.1 86.9 48.8 65.1
34 United Arab Emirates 0.232 49 6 28.4 22.5 78.8 d 65.7 d 40.9 92.0
35 Andorra .. .. .. .. 32.1 71.7 73.3 .. ..
35 Lithuania 0.123 28 10 10.7 21.3 91.8 96.4 55.9 66.2
37 Qatar 0.206 44 13 9.9 9.8 70.9 68.0 58.1 94.6
38 Slovakia 0.180 39 6 22.0 20.0 99.1 100.0 52.5 67.7
39 Brunei Darussalam 0.236 51 23 10.3 9.1 69.1 d 70.3 d 59.0 74.7
39 Saudi Arabia 0.234 50 12 7.8 19.9 67.8 75.5 22.3 79.5
41 Latvia 0.196 42 18 13.5 16.0 99.4 99.1 55.2 67.3
41 Portugal 0.088 19 10 9.4 34.8 52.1 53.4 53.3 63.8
43 Bahrain 0.222 47 15 13.4 15.0 63.7 57.1 44.0 87.0
44 Chile 0.319 72 22 45.6 15.8 e 79.0 80.9 50.6 74.4
45 Hungary 0.259 54 17 19.7 10.1 95.7 98.0 47.9 64.2
46 Croatia 0.124 29 8 8.9 18.5 94.5 96.9 45.5 57.7
47 Argentina 0.358 81 52 62.8 38.9 65.9 d 62.8 d 47.3 73.2
48 Oman 0.264 56 17 7.1 8.8 73.4 63.7 30.2 87.3
49 Russian Federation 0.257 53 25 21.6 16.1 95.8 95.3 56.6 71.8
50 Montenegro 0.132 32 7 11.8 23.5 87.0 96.4 42.2 55.0
51 Bulgaria 0.217 46 11 39.5 23.8 93.7 96.1 47.8 59.6
52 Romania 0.311 68 31 33.1 18.7 86.5 92.7 44.1 63.1
53 Belarus 0.130 31 4 17.2 33.1 87.0 92.2 58.4 70.7
54 Bahamas 0.340 75 80 26.7 21.8 87.4 87.6 70.0 82.0
55 Uruguay 0.270 57 15 54.7 22.3 55.8 52.1 56.1 74.4
56 Kuwait 0.270 57 4 9.0 3.1 54.8 49.3 47.4 84.1
57 Malaysia 0.287 62 40 13.4 13.1 78.9 81.3 50.8 77.4
58 Barbados 0.284 60 27 37.3 19.6 94.2 d 91.6 d 62.3 70.0
58 Kazakhstan 0.197 43 12 27.5 22.1 98.5 99.1 65.4 77.3
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
60 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.461 109 25 25.0 5.9 65.8 70.9 16.8 71.4
60 Palau .. .. .. .. 13.8 96.9 97.3 .. ..
62 Seychelles .. .. .. 56.9 21.2 .. .. .. ..
63 Costa Rica 0.300 64 25 53.5 35.1 53.8 51.9 45.3 73.9
64 Turkey 0.317 69 16 25.8 14.6 44.9 66.0 32.4 71.9
65 Mauritius 0.373 84 53 26.6 11.6 64.3 67.3 45.1 72.7
66 Panama 0.461 109 94 81.8 18.3 72.7 68.4 52.8 81.2
67 Serbia 0.181 40 17 18.9 34.4 84.6 93.0 45.9 61.7
68 Albania 0.238 52 29 20.7 27.9 93.1 92.8 47.2 64.9
69 Trinidad and Tobago 0.324 73 63 30.1 30.1 74.4 69.1 51.0 73.7
70 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 43.5 20.0 .. .. .. ..
70 Georgia 0.350 78 36 45.9 16.0 95.1 96.0 57.9 78.8
72 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. .. .. ..
73 Cuba 0.301 65 39 43.6 48.9 86.7 88.9 41.5 67.3
74 Mexico 0.343 76 38 60.3 41.4 57.8 61.0 44.1 79.0
75 Grenada .. .. 27 29.2 25.0 .. .. .. ..
76 Sri Lanka 0.354 80 30 14.1 5.8 82.6 83.1 35.1 74.1
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.166 37 11 10.0 19.3 71.7 88.7 35.2 58.7
78 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.454 105 95 85.3 22.2 71.7 66.6 50.2 77.4
79 Brazil 0.407 94 44 61.6 11.3 61.0 57.7 53.2 74.7
80 Azerbaijan 0.318 71 25 53.5 16.8 93.8 97.5 62.9 69.5
80 Lebanon 0.381 85 15 11.8 3.1 53.0 55.4 23.2 71.1
80 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.149 35 8 16.2 37.5 40.5 56.0 42.5 67.6
83 Armenia 0.262 55 25 23.2 18.1 96.9 97.6 51.4 70.6
83 Thailand 0.393 93 20 51.9 4.8 42.4 47.5 60.5 77.3
85 Algeria 0.442 100 140 10.1 21.3 37.5 d 37.9 d 15.2 67.3
86 China 0.152 36 27 6.4 24.2 74.0 82.0 61.5 76.1
86 Ecuador 0.385 88 64 73.9 38.0 52.1 52.2 55.4 81.3
88 Ukraine 0.285 61 24 23.8 12.3 94.5 d 95.6 d 46.9 63.0
89 Peru 0.368 83 68 47.5 27.7 57.1 67.5 69.0 84.5
90 Colombia 0.383 87 64 47.5 19.8 51.1 49.2 58.8 82.6
90 Saint Lucia 0.333 74 48 40.5 20.7 48.2 42.0 61.2 75.9
92 Fiji 0.352 79 30 43.9 16.0 77.3 d 68.3 d 40.8 75.4
92 Mongolia 0.301 65 44 23.6 17.1 91.2 86.3 52.7 66.2
94 Dominican Republic 0.451 103 92 95.0 24.3 58.6 54.4 54.4 79.5
95 Jordan 0.460 108 58 22.4 15.4 81.4 85.8 14.0 63.7
95 Tunisia 0.298 63 62 7.7 31.3 41.2 52.7 24.3 70.6
97 Jamaica 0.412 95 89 52.8 19.0 69.9 62.4 57.3 77.4
98 Tonga 0.416 96 124 14.7 7.7 92.7 92.3 45.2 74.2
99 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 45 49.0 13.0 .. .. 58.6 80.3
100 Suriname 0.441 99 155 46.0 25.5 58.7 57.8 41.8 65.3
101 Botswana 0.434 98 129 30.0 9.5 88.8 d 89.6 d 65.6 78.4
101 Maldives 0.343 76 68 5.8 5.9 44.9 d 49.3 d 42.9 82.1
103 Dominica .. .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. .. ..
104 Samoa 0.365 82 51 23.9 10.0 79.1 71.6 23.7 38.9
105 Uzbekistan 0.274 59 36 16.5 16.4 99.9 99.9 53.8 77.9
106 Belize 0.386 89 28 63.5 11.1 78.9 78.4 53.2 81.3
106 Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. 9.1 91.6 92.5 .. ..
108 Libya 0.170 38 9 5.7 16.0 69.4 d 45.0 d 25.8 79.0
108 Turkmenistan .. .. 42 24.4 25.8 .. .. 53.4 78.2
110 Gabon 0.534 128 291 95.3 17.4 65.6 d 49.8 d 42.9 59.4
110 Paraguay 0.467 113 132 55.7 16.0 47.0 49.2 56.6 83.9
112 Moldova (Republic of) 0.226 48 23 22.0 22.8 95.5 97.4 39.5 45.8
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113 Philippines 0.427 97 114 60.5 29.1 76.6 72.4 49.6 75.1
113 South Africa 0.389 90 138 42.8 41.0 f 74.2 77.4 47.9 62.0
115 Egypt 0.449 101 33 50.0 14.9 58.2 d 70.7 d 22.2 73.7
116 Indonesia 0.453 104 126 47.4 19.8 44.5 53.2 50.7 81.8
116 Viet Nam 0.304 67 54 27.3 26.7 66.2 77.7 73.2 83.5
118 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.450 102 206 68.1 51.8 50.5 59.5 55.2 79.9
119 Palestine, State of .. .. 45 56.2 .. 58.5 62.3 19.5 71.8
120 Iraq 0.506 123 50 80.1 25.3 38.7 56.7 18.7 74.1
121 El Salvador 0.392 91 54 69.5 32.1 42.2 47.9 47.0 78.8
122 Kyrgyzstan 0.392 91 76 38.1 19.2 98.6 98.3 48.2 75.7
123 Morocco 0.482 119 121 31.1 18.4 28.0 d 34.8 d 25.0 74.1
124 Nicaragua 0.456 106 150 85.4 45.7 48.3 d 46.6 d 50.3 84.0
125 Cabo Verde .. .. 42 73.8 20.8 g .. .. 49.6 71.5
125 Guyana 0.504 122 229 85.8 31.9 70.9 d 55.5 d 40.7 74.6
127 Guatemala 0.493 120 88 70.9 12.7 38.4 37.2 40.6 85.0
127 Tajikistan 0.317 69 32 36.4 20.0 98.9 d 87.0 d 45.5 73.3
129 Namibia 0.472 115 265 73.8 36.3 39.9 d 41.0 d 58.5 65.2
130 India 0.524 127 174 23.1 11.6 39.0 63.5 27.2 78.8
131 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. 100 13.9 0.0 h .. .. .. ..
132 Timor-Leste .. .. 215 44.0 32.3 .. .. 24.9 52.3
133 Honduras 0.461 109 129 70.8 25.8 e 36.8 33.5 50.9 85.8
134 Bhutan 0.476 117 148 20.3 8.3 6.0 13.7 58.0 74.3
134 Kiribati .. .. 90 16.2 6.5 .. .. .. ..
136 Bangladesh 0.542 134 176 83.5 20.3 44.0 d 48.2 d 33.0 79.8
137 Congo 0.578 143 442 111.8 14.0 46.7 d 51.0 d 67.4 72.0
138 Vanuatu .. .. 78 41.9 0.0 h .. .. 61.5 79.6
139 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.461 109 197 62.6 27.5 33.6 d 45.2 d 76.9 79.7
140 Ghana 0.538 131 319 66.6 12.7 54.6 70.4 74.8 79.2
141 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 342 155.6 19.7 e .. .. 55.7 61.8
142 Kenya 0.549 137 510 80.5 23.3 29.2 36.6 62.4 68.5
143 Sao Tome and Principe 0.538 131 156 94.8 18.2 31.1 45.2 41.3 75.4
144 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 0.569 141 389 77.0 14.7 30.0 d 32.7 d 42.7 67.2
144 Zambia 0.517 125 224 82.8 18.0 39.2 d 52.4 d 70.1 79.7
146 Cambodia 0.473 116 161 50.2 18.5 15.1 28.1 80.9 88.7
147 Angola .. .. 477 151.6 30.5 .. .. 75.3 80.1
148 Myanmar 0.456 106 178 28.7 10.2 28.7 d 22.3 51.3 79.9
149 Nepal 0.480 118 258 60.5 29.6 27.3 43.1 82.7 85.9
150 Pakistan 0.541 133 178 36.9 20.0 27.0 47.3 24.9 82.7
151 Cameroon 0.569 141 596 105.8 27.1 32.5 39.2 71.2 81.2
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
152 Solomon Islands .. .. 114 46.4 2.0 .. .. 62.5 80.3
153 Papua New Guinea 0.741 159 215 52.7 0.0 h 9.5 d 15.0 d 69.0 70.8
154 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.537 130 398 115.1 37.2 11.9 16.9 79.5 87.4
155 Syrian Arab Republic 0.547 136 68 38.6 13.2 37.1 42.6 11.9 70.2
156 Zimbabwe 0.534 128 443 104.1 36.2 55.9 66.3 78.5 89.1
157 Nigeria .. .. 814 107.3 5.8 .. .. 50.4 59.8
158 Rwanda 0.381 85 290 25.7 55.7 12.6 17.0 86.0 86.3
159 Lesotho 0.544 135 487 89.5 22.7 31.8 d 24.2 d 59.3 74.4
159 Mauritania 0.617 147 602 79.2 25.2 12.2 d 24.5 d 31.0 67.7
161 Madagascar .. .. 353 109.6 19.6 .. .. 83.6 89.4
162 Uganda 0.523 126 343 106.5 34.3 26.7 32.4 66.6 74.9
163 Benin 0.611 146 405 86.1 7.2 18.2 d 32.7 d 68.7 73.1
164 Senegal 0.515 124 315 72.7 41.8 11.1 20.1 45.5 69.9
165 Comoros .. .. 335 65.4 6.1 .. .. 36.0 50.2
165 Togo 0.567 140 368 89.1 17.6 26.3 52.5 75.8 79.4
167 Sudan 0.564 139 311 64.0 31.0 14.7 d 19.3 d 23.6 69.9
168 Afghanistan 0.653 153 396 64.5 27.4 11.4 d 36.9 d 19.5 86.7
168 Haiti 0.601 144 359 37.5 2.7 26.9 d 39.9 d 63.8 72.6
170 Côte d'Ivoire 0.663 155 645 132.7 9.2 i 17.8 34.1 48.1 66.2
171 Malawi 0.619 148 634 140.2 16.7 16.7 d 25.4 d 72.3 81.9
172 Djibouti .. .. 229 18.8 10.8 .. .. 49.5 68.5
173 Ethiopia 0.502 121 353 62.5 37.3 11.2 21.4 77.2 87.8
174 Gambia 0.623 149 706 79.2 10.3 29.0 d 42.3 d 51.2 67.7
175 Guinea .. .. 679 135.3 21.9 .. .. 63.0 65.4
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.652 152 693 124.2 8.2 36.7 65.8 71.4 73.5
177 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 549 84.5 13.7 .. .. 65.6 78.1
178 Yemen 0.834 160 385 60.4 0.5 18.7 d 34.8 d 6.0 69.6
179 Eritrea .. .. 501 51.6 22.0 .. .. 75.4 87.4
180 Mozambique 0.552 138 489 135.2 39.6 16.1 27.3 82.5 74.6
181 Liberia 0.656 154 725 127.5 9.9 18.5 d 39.6 d 53.9 57.4
182 Mali 0.678 157 587 169.1 8.8 7.3 16.4 60.8 82.5
183 Burkina Faso 0.610 145 371 104.3 11.0 6.0 11.7 58.2 75.2
184 Sierra Leone 0.645 150 1,360 112.8 12.4 19.2 d 32.3 d 57.1 58.7
185 Burundi 0.471 114 712 26.8 37.8 7.5 10.5 80.2 77.5
186 Chad 0.708 158 856 161.1 12.8 1.7 10.0 64.8 77.6
187 South Sudan .. .. 789 62.0 26.6 .. .. 70.8 73.9
188 Central African Republic 0.673 156 882 103.8 8.6 13.2 d 30.8 d 63.3 80.0
189 Niger 0.649 151 553 192.0 17.0 4.3 d 8.9 d 67.5 90.7
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. 82 0.3 16.3 .. .. 74.4 86.9
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. 20.8 .. .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. 26.7 .. .. .. ..
.. Somalia .. .. 732 100.1 24.3 .. .. 18.6 74.3
.. Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.170 15 15.9 26.7 88.8 89.5 52.9 68.9
High human development 0.289 38 26.6 22.3 69.5 75.7 55.0 75.5
Medium human development 0.489 176 41.3 21.8 42.9 59.4 36.8 78.9
Low human development 0.586 554 98.4 21.7 18.5 30.7 59.3 74.7
Developing countries 0.468 232 48.0 21.9 54.6 65.5 47.5 77.0
Regions
Arab States 0.531 149 46.3 18.0 45.1 54.6 20.7 74.2
East Asia and the Pacific 0.312 62 22.4 19.8 67.8 75.5 60.1 77.3
Europe and Central Asia 0.270 24 25.5 20.7 78.4 85.9 45.5 70.3
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.386 67 61.5 28.8 59.5 59.1 51.6 77.5
South Asia 0.515 176 32.1 17.5 39.8 60.6 27.9 79.1
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.569 549 101.3 23.5 28.8 39.2 65.2 74.0
Least developed countries 0.559 434 T 91.0 22.4 25.0 34.3 57.4 79.6
Small island developing states 0.459 202 56.5 23.4 56.7 58.8 53.8 72.4
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0.186 15 20.7 28.9 84.6 87.3 51.3 68.6
World 0.441 216 T 44.0 23.5 62.5 70.9 48.7 75.3


Note
a. Estimates modelled by the International Labour Organization.
b. Data are the annual average of projected values for 2015-2020.
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Based on Barro and Lee (2016).
e. Refers to 2016.
f. Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
g. Refers to 2013.
h. In calculating the Gender Inequality Index, a value of 0.1 percent was used.
i. Refers to 2015.
T. From original data source.

Definitions
Gender Inequality Index: A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. See Technical note 4 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Gender Inequality Index is calculated.
Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
Share of seats in parliament: Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as percentage of total seats. For countries with a bicameral legislative system, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses.
Population with at least some secondary education: Percentage of the population ages 25 and older that has reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education.
Labour force participation rate: Proportion of the working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.


Main data sources
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data in columns 3-9.
Column 2: Calculated based on data in column 1.
Column 3: UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2017).
Column 4: UNDESA (2017a).
Column 5: IPU (2018).
Columns 6 and 7: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018) and Barro and Lee (2016).
Columns 8 and 9: ILO (2018a).