Table 5: Gender Inequality Index

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Gender Inequality Index Maternal mortality ratio Adolescent birth rate Share of seats in parliament Population with at least some secondary education Labour force participation ratea
(% ages 25 and older) (% ages 15 and older)
Value Rank (deaths per100,000 live births) (births per 1,000 women ages 15–19) (% held by women) Female Male Female Male
Country 2014 2014 2013 2010/2015b 2014 2005–2014c 2005–2014c 2013 2013
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.067 9 4 7.8 39.6 97.4 96.7 61.2 68.7
2 Australia 0.110 19 6 12.1 30.5 94.3d 94.6d 58.8 71.8
3 Switzerland 0.028 2 6 1.9 28.5 95.0 96.6 61.8 74.9
4 Denmark 0.048 4 5 5.1 38.0 95.5e 96.6e 58.7 66.4
5 Netherlands 0.062 7 6 6.2 36.9 87.7 90.5 58.5 70.6
6 Germany 0.041 3 7 3.8 36.9 96.3 97.0 53.6 66.4
6 Ireland 0.113 21 9 8.2 19.9 80.5 78.6 53.1 68.1
8 United States 0.280 55 28 31.0 19.4 95.1 94.8 56.3 68.9
9 Canada 0.129 25 11 14.5 28.2 100.0 100.0 61.6 71.0
9 New Zealand 0.157 32 8 25.3 31.4 95.0 95.3 62.0 73.8
11 Singapore 0.088 13 6 6.0 25.3 74.1 81.0 58.8 77.2
12 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 3.3 .. 72.2 79.2 51.3 67.8
13 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. 20.0 .. .. .. ..
14 Sweden 0.055 6 4 6.5 43.6 86.5 87.3 60.3 67.9
14 United Kingdom 0.177 39 8 25.8 23.5 99.8 99.9 55.7 68.7
16 Iceland 0.087 12 4 11.5 41.3 91.0 91.6 70.5 77.4
17 Korea (Republic of) 0.125 23 27 2.2 16.3 77.0f 89.1f 50.1 72.1
18 Israel 0.101 18 2 7.8 22.5 84.4 87.3 57.9 69.1
19 Luxembourg 0.100 17 11 8.3 28.3 100.0e 100.0e 50.7 64.6
20 Japan 0.133 26 6 5.4 11.6 87.0 85.8 48.8 70.4
21 Belgium 0.063 8 6 6.7 42.4 77.5 82.9 47.5 59.3
22 France 0.088 13 12 5.7 25.7 78.0 83.2 50.7 61.6
23 Austria 0.053 5 4 4.1 30.3 100.0 100.0 54.6 67.7
24 Finland 0.075 11 4 9.2 42.5 100.0 100.0 55.7 64.0
25 Slovenia 0.016 1 7 0.6 27.7 95.8 98.0 52.3 63.2
26 Spain 0.095 16 4 10.6 38.0 66.8 73.1 52.5 65.8
27 Italy 0.068 10 4 4.0 30.1 71.2 80.5 39.6 59.5
28 Czech Republic 0.091 15 5 4.9 18.9 99.9 99.7 51.1 68.3
29 Greece 0.146 29 5 11.9 21.0 59.5 67.0 44.2 62.5
30 Estonia 0.164 33 11 16.8 19.8 100.0e 100.0e 56.2 68.9
31 Brunei Darussalam .. .. 27 23.0 .. 63.9f 67.8f 52.6 75.3
32 Cyprus 0.124 22 10 5.5 12.5 76.0 81.7 56.0 71.1
32 Qatar 0.524 116 6 9.5 0.0g 66.7 59.0 50.8 95.5
34 Andorra .. .. .. .. 50.0 49.5 49.3 .. ..
35 Slovakia 0.164 33 7 15.9 18.7 99.1 99.5 51.1 68.6
36 Poland 0.138 28 3 12.2 22.1 79.4 85.5 48.9 64.9
37 Lithuania 0.125 23 11 10.6 23.4 89.1 94.3 55.8 67.3
37 Malta 0.227 46 9 18.2 13.0 68.6 78.2 37.9 66.3
39 Saudi Arabia 0.284 56 16 10.2 19.9 60.5 70.3 20.2 78.3
40 Argentina 0.376 75 69 54.4 36.8 56.3f 57.6f 47.5 75.0
41 United Arab Emirates 0.232 47 8 27.6 17.5 73.1 61.2 46.5 92.0
42 Chile 0.338 65 22 55.3 15.8 73.3 76.4 49.2 74.8
43 Portugal 0.111 20 8 12.6 31.3 47.7 48.2 54.9 66.2
44 Hungary 0.209 42 14 12.1 10.1 97.9e 98.7e 44.8 60.0
45 Bahrain 0.265 51 22 13.8 15.0 56.7f 51.4f 39.2 86.9
46 Latvia 0.167 36 13 13.5 18.0 98.9 99.0 54.9 67.6
47 Croatia 0.149 30 13 12.7 25.8 85.0 93.6 44.7 58.4
48 Kuwait 0.387 79 14 14.5 1.5 55.6 56.3 43.6 83.1
49 Montenegro 0.171 37 7 15.2 17.3 84.2 94.7 43.0 57.3
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
50 Belarus 0.151 31 1 20.6 30.1 87.0 92.2 50.1 63.1
50 Russian Federation 0.276 54 24 25.7 14.5 89.6 92.5 57.1 71.7
52 Oman 0.275 53 11 10.6 9.6 47.2 57.1 29.0 82.6
52 Romania 0.333 64 33 31.0 12.0 86.1 92.0 48.7 64.9
52 Uruguay 0.313 61 14 58.3 11.5 54.4f 50.3 55.6 76.8
55 Bahamas 0.298 58 37 28.5 16.7 91.2 87.6f 69.3 79.3
56 Kazakhstan 0.267 52 26 29.9 20.1 95.3 98.8 67.7 77.9
57 Barbados 0.357 69 52 48.4 19.6 89.5f 87.7f 65.9 76.6
58 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 49.3 25.7 .. .. .. ..
59 Bulgaria 0.212 44 5 35.9 20.4 93.0 95.7 47.9 59.0
60 Palau .. .. .. .. 10.3 .. .. .. ..
60 Panama 0.454 96 85 78.5 19.3 54.0f 49.9f 49.0 81.8
62 Malaysia 0.209 42 29 5.7 14.2 65.1f 71.3f 44.4 75.5
63 Mauritius 0.419 88 73 30.9 11.6 49.4 58.0 43.6 74.2
64 Seychelles .. .. .. 56.3 43.8 66.9 66.6 .. ..
64 Trinidad and Tobago 0.371 73 84 34.8 24.7 59.7 60.9 53.0 75.5
66 Serbia 0.176 38 16 16.9 34.0 58.4 73.6 44.5 60.9
67 Cuba 0.356 68 80 43.1 48.9 74.3f 78.8f 43.4 70.0
67 Lebanon 0.385 78 16 12.0 3.1 53.0 55.4 23.3 70.9
69 Costa Rica 0.349 66 38 60.8 33.3 50.7f 50.5f 46.6 79.0
69 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.515 114 23 31.6 3.1 62.2 67.6 16.6 73.6
71 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.476 103 110 83.2 17.0 56.6 50.8 51.1 79.2
72 Turkey 0.359 71 20 30.9 14.4 39.0 60.0 29.4 70.8
73 Sri Lanka 0.370 72 29 16.9 5.8 72.7 76.4 35.1 76.3
74 Mexico 0.373 74 49 63.4 37.1 55.7 60.6 45.1 79.9
75 Brazil 0.457 97 69 70.8 9.6 54.6 52.4 59.4 80.8
76 Georgia 0.382 77 41 46.8 11.3 89.7 92.7 56.5 75.1
77 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
78 Azerbaijan 0.303 59 26 40.0 15.6 93.7 97.4 62.9 69.6
79 Grenada .. .. 23 35.4 25.0 .. .. .. ..
80 Jordan 0.473 102 50 26.5 11.6 69.5 78.5 15.6 66.6
81 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.164 33 7 18.3 33.3 40.2 55.6 43.1 67.5
81 Ukraine 0.286 57 23 25.7 11.8 91.7f 95.9f 53.2 66.9
83 Algeria 0.413 85 89 10.0 25.7 26.7 31.0 15.2 72.2
84 Peru 0.406 82 89 50.7 22.3 56.3 66.1 68.2 84.4
85 Albania 0.217 45 21 15.3 20.7 81.8 87.9 44.9 65.5
85 Armenia 0.318 62 29 27.1 10.7 94.0f 95.0f 54.2 72.6
85 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.201 41 8 15.1 19.3 44.9 69.8 34.1 57.3
88 Ecuador 0.407 83 87 77.0 41.6 40.1 39.4 54.7 82.7
89 Saint Lucia .. .. 34 56.3 20.7 .. .. 62.7 76.2
90 China 0.191 40 32 8.6 23.6 58.7 71.9 63.9 78.3
90 Fiji 0.418 87 59 42.8 14.0 64.2 64.5 37.5 72.0
90 Mongolia 0.325 63 68 18.7 14.9 85.3f 84.1f 56.6 69.3
93 Thailand 0.380 76 26 41.0 6.1 35.7 40.8 64.3 80.7
94 Dominica .. .. .. .. 21.9 29.7 23.2 .. ..
94 Libya 0.134 27 15 2.5 16.0 55.5f 41.9f 30.0 76.4
96 Tunisia 0.240 48 46 4.6 31.3 32.8 46.1 25.1 70.9
97 Colombia 0.429 92 83 68.5 20.9 56.9 55.6 55.8 79.7
97 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 45 54.5 13.0 .. .. 55.7 78.0
99 Jamaica 0.430 93 80 70.1 16.7 74.0f 70.2f 56.1 70.9
100 Tonga 0.666 148 120 18.1 0.0g 87.5 88.3 53.5 74.6
101 Belize 0.426 90 45 71.4 13.3 76.4f 75.8f 49.2 82.3
101 Dominican Republic 0.477 104 100 99.6 19.1 55.6 53.1 51.3 78.6
103 Suriname 0.463 100 130 35.2 11.8 44.6 47.1 40.5 68.8
104 Maldives 0.243 49 31 4.2 5.9 27.3 32.7 56.2 77.5
105 Samoa 0.457 97 58 28.3 6.1 64.3 60.0 23.5 58.4
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
106 Botswana 0.480 106 170 44.2 9.5 73.6f 77.9f 71.9 81.6
107 Moldova (Republic of) 0.248 50 21 29.3 20.8 93.6 96.6 37.6 44.2
108 Egypt 0.573 131 45 43.0 2.2h 43.9f 60.6f 23.7 74.8
109 Turkmenistan .. .. 61 18.0 25.8 .. .. 46.9 76.9
110 Gabon 0.514 113 240 103.0 16.2 53.9f 36.1f 56.2 65.4
110 Indonesia 0.494 110 190 48.3 17.1 39.9 49.2 51.4 84.2
112 Paraguay 0.472 101 110 67.0 16.8 36.8 43.0 55.7 84.8
113 Palestine, State of .. .. .. 45.8 .. 53.9 59.4 15.4 66.4
114 Uzbekistan .. .. 36 38.8 16.4 .. .. 48.1 75.6
115 Philippines 0.420 89 120 46.8 27.1 65.9 63.7 51.1 79.7
116 El Salvador 0.427 91 69 76.0 27.4 36.8 43.6 47.8 79.0
116 South Africa 0.407 83 140 50.9 40.7i 72.7 75.9 44.5 60.5
116 Viet Nam 0.308 60 49 29.0 24.3 59.4 71.2 73.0 82.2
119 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.444 94 200 71.9 51.8 47.6 59.1 64.2 80.9
120 Kyrgyzstan 0.353 67 75 29.3 23.3 94.5 96.8 56.0 79.5
121 Iraq 0.539 123 67 68.7 26.5 27.8 50.2 14.9 69.8
122 Cabo Verde .. .. 53 70.6 20.8 .. .. 51.5 83.7
123 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. 96 18.6 0.0g .. .. .. ..
124 Guyana 0.515 114 250 88.5 31.3 60.3f 47.8f 42.6 80.5
125 Nicaragua 0.449 95 100 100.8 39.1 39.4f 38.3f 47.4 80.3
126 Morocco 0.525 117 120 35.8 11.0 20.7f 30.2f 26.5 75.8
126 Namibia 0.401 81 130 54.9 37.7 33.3f 34.4f 54.7 63.7
128 Guatemala 0.533 119 140 97.2 13.3 21.9 23.2 49.3 88.2
129 Tajikistan 0.357 69 44 42.8 15.2 95.1 91.2 58.9 77.1
130 India 0.563 130 190 32.8 12.2 27.0 56.6 27.0 79.9
131 Honduras 0.480 106 120 84.0 25.8 28.0 25.8 42.8 82.9
132 Bhutan 0.457 97 120 40.9 8.3 34.0 34.5 66.7 77.2
133 Timor-Leste .. .. 270 52.2 38.5 .. .. 24.6 50.8
134 Syrian Arab Republic 0.533 119 49 41.6 12.4 29.5 40.5 13.5 72.7
134 Vanuatu .. .. 86 44.8 0.0g .. .. 61.5 80.0
136 Congo 0.593 137 410 126.7 11.5 39.7f 47.0f 68.5 73.0
137 Kiribati .. .. 130 16.6 8.7 .. .. .. ..
138 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 290 112.6 19.7 .. .. 80.7 92.2
139 Zambia 0.587 132 280 125.4 12.7 25.8f 44.0f 73.1 85.6
140 Ghana 0.554 127 380 58.4 10.9 45.2 64.7 67.3 71.4
141 Lao People's Democratic Republic .. .. .. 65.0 25.0 22.9f 37.0f 76.3 79.1
142 Bangladesh 0.503 111 170 80.6 20.0 34.1f 41.3f 57.4 84.1
143 Cambodia 0.477 104 170 44.3 19.0 9.9 22.9 78.8 86.5
143 Sao Tome and Principe .. .. 210 65.1 18.2 .. .. 45.3 77.8
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
145 Kenya 0.552 126 400 93.6 20.8 25.3 31.4 62.2 72.4
145 Nepal 0.489 108 190 73.7 29.5 17.7f 38.2f 79.9 87.1
147 Pakistan 0.536 121 170 27.3 19.7 19.3 46.1 24.6 82.9
148 Myanmar 0.413 85 200 12.1 4.7 22.9f 15.3f 75.2 82.3
149 Angola .. .. 460 170.2 36.8 .. .. 63.3 76.9
150 Swaziland 0.557 128 310 72.0 14.7 21.9f 26.0f 43.9 71.6
151 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.547 125 410 122.7 36.0 5.6f 9.5f 88.1 90.2
152 Nigeria .. .. 560 119.6 6.6 .. .. 48.2 63.7
153 Cameroon 0.587 132 590 115.8 27.1 21.3f 34.9f 63.8 76.8
154 Madagascar .. .. 440 122.8 20.5 .. .. 86.6 90.5
155 Zimbabwe 0.504 112 470 60.3 35.1 48.7 62.0 83.2j 89.7j
156 Mauritania 0.610 139 320 73.3 22.2 8.3f 20.9f 28.7 79.1
156 Solomon Islands .. .. 130 64.9 2.0 .. .. 53.4 79.0
158 Papua New Guinea 0.611 140 220 62.1 2.7 7.6f 14.5f 70.5 74.0
159 Comoros .. .. 350 51.1 3.0 .. .. 35.2 80.1
160 Yemen 0.744 155 270 47.0 0.7 8.6f 26.7f 25.4 72.2
161 Lesotho 0.541 124 490 89.4 26.8 21.9 19.0 59.0 73.5
162 Togo 0.588 134 450 91.5 17.6 16.1f 40.3f 80.6 81.3
163 Haiti 0.603 138 380 42.0 3.5 22.4f 35.2f 60.9 71.0
163 Rwanda 0.400 80 320 33.6 57.5 8.0f 8.8f 86.4 85.3
163 Uganda 0.538 122 360 126.6 35.0 22.9 33.5 75.8 79.2
166 Benin 0.614 142 340 90.2 8.4 11.3f 27.0f 67.6 78.3
167 Sudan 0.591 135 360 84.0 23.8 12.1f 18.2f 31.3 76.0
168 Djibouti .. .. 230 18.6 12.7 .. .. 36.3 67.7
169 South Sudan .. .. 730 75.3 24.3 .. .. .. ..
170 Senegal 0.528 118 320 94.4 42.7 7.2 15.4 66.0 88.0
171 Afghanistan 0.693 152 400 86.8 27.6 5.9f 29.8f 15.8 79.5
172 Côte d'Ivoire 0.679 151 720 130.3 9.2 14.0f 30.1f 52.4 81.4
173 Malawi 0.611 140 510 144.8 16.7 11.1 21.6 84.6 81.5
174 Ethiopia 0.558 129 420 78.4 25.5 7.8 18.2 78.2 89.3
175 Gambia 0.622 143 430 115.8 9.4 17.4f 31.5f 72.2 82.9
176 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.673 149 730 135.3 8.2 12.8f 32.4f 70.7 73.2
177 Liberia 0.651 146 640 117.4 10.7 15.4f 39.3f 58.2 64.8
178 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 560 99.3 13.7 .. .. 68.2 78.5
179 Mali 0.677 150 550 175.6 9.5 7.7 15.1 50.8 81.4
180 Mozambique 0.591 135 480 137.8 39.6 1.4f 6.2f 85.5 82.8
181 Sierra Leone 0.650 145 1,100 100.7 12.4 10.0f 21.7f 65.7 69.0
182 Guinea .. .. 650 131.0 21.9 .. .. 65.6 78.3
183 Burkina Faso 0.631 144 400 115.4 13.3 0.9 3.2 77.1 90.0
184 Burundi 0.492 109 740 30.3 34.9 5.3f 8.3f 83.3 82.0
185 Chad 0.706 153 980 152.0 14.9 1.7 9.9 64.0 79.2
186 Eritrea .. .. 380 65.3 22.0 .. .. 80.0 89.8
187 Central African Republic 0.655 147 880 98.3 12.5h 10.1f 26.7f 72.6 85.1
188 Niger 0.713 154 630 204.8 13.3 2.4f 7.8f 40.0 89.7
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. 87 0.6 16.3 .. .. 72.2 84.2
Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. 3.0 .. .. .. ..
Monaco .. .. .. .. 20.8 .. .. .. ..
Nauru .. .. .. .. 5.3 .. .. .. ..
San Marino .. .. .. .. 16.7 .. .. .. ..
Somalia .. .. 850 110.4 13.8 .. .. 37.2 75.5
Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.199 18 19.0 26.5 86.2 87.9 52.1 68.7
High human development 0.310 41 28.8 20.6 60.6 69.5 57.0 77.2
Medium human development 0.506 168 43.4 18.8 34.8 55.3 37.5 79.8
Low human development 0.583 461 92.1 20.5 14.8 28.3 57.2 79.1
Developing countries 0.478 225 51.5 20.2 44.2 58.4 49.5 78.7
Regions
Arab States 0.537 155 45.4 14.0 34.7 47.6 23.2 75.3
East Asia and the Pacific 0.328 72 21.2 18.7 54.7 66.3 62.6 79.4
Europe and Central Asia 0.300 28 30.8 19.0 70.8 80.6 45.6 70.0
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.415 85 68.3 27.0 54.3 55.2 53.7 79.8
South Asia 0.536 183 38.7 17.5 29.1 54.6 29.8 80.3
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.575 506 109.7 22.5 22.1 31.5 65.4 76.6
Least developed countries 0.566 439 97.0 20.4 17.2 26.4 65.7 82.6
Small island developing states 0.474 220 61.5 22.8 51.1 55.1 53.0 73.3
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0.231 21 25.4 26.9 82.9 86.3 50.9 68.9
World 0.449 210T 47.4 21.8 54.5 65.4 50.3 76.7

 

Notes
a. Modeled International Labour Organization estimates.
b. Data are annual average of projected values for 2010–2015.
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Refers to population ages 25–64.
e. Refers to population ages 25–74.
f. Barro and Lee (2014) estimate for 2010 based on data from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics.
g. For the purpose of calculating the Gender Inequality Index value, 0.1% was used.
h. Refers to 2013.
i. Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
j. Refers to 2012.
T. From original data source.

DEFINITIONS
Gender Inequality Index: A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. See Technical note 4 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2015_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Gender Inequality Index is calculated.
Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
Share of seats in national parliament: Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as percentage of total seats. For countries with bicameral legislative systems, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses.
Population with at least some secondary education: Percentage of the population ages 25 and older who have reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education.
Labour force participation rate: Proportion of a country’s working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.

Main data sources
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data in columns 3–9.
Column 2: Calculated based on data in column 1.
Column 3: UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2014).
Column 4: UNDESA (2013a).
Column 5: IPU (2015).
Columns 6 and 7: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015).
Columns 8 and 9: ILO (2015a).